Integrative rRNA Solutions

CD Genomics is dedicated to partnering with you to determine the optimal solution or technology for your rRNA research project. We offer sample-to-data service to comprehensively map global post-transcriptional modifications of rRNA, thereby uncovering their function and associations with disease. Our services are performed by our professionally trained staff on our state-of-the-art mass spectrometry or high-throughput sequencing instruments and analyzed with advanced bioinformatics tools.

Overview of rRNAs

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is a type of non-coding RNA that forms part of ribosomes. Each ribosome contains at least one large rRNA and at least one small rRNA, which combines with proteins to form the large/small subunits of the ribosome. As ribosomes participate in the translation, rRNA is essential to all cells that forces tRNA and mRNA to process and translate the latter into proteins. rRNAs are the most ubiquitous form of RNA in most cells that make up around 80% of cellular RNA. While Bacterial rRNAs are different from eukaryotic rRNAs, rRNAs are evolutionarily conserved. For example, 16S rRNA is present in all bacteria, and analysis of the 16S rRNA sequences has been widely used for bacterial identification and population genetics. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology enabled high-throughput analysis of 16S rRNA (16S rRNA sequencing) from multiple samples in a sequencing run. Post-transcriptional modification of rRNA is very common in all branches of the tree of life. The three basic types of modification of rRNA include methylation, pseudouridylation, and acetylation. Recognition of rRNA modifications by specific antibodies integrated with NGS enables mapping of rRNA modifications such as m7G, m3C, 2’-O-methylation, and ac4c. rRNA modification may alter ribosome function in response to environmental changes, during development, and in disease, which suggests that rRNA may affect translation, thus gene expression.

Characteristics of rRNAs

  1. rRNAs are the most ubiquitous and conserved non-coding RNAs.
  2. rRNAs can be used for taxonomy and are the target of numerous clinically relevant antibiotics.
  3. Alterations to rRNA may allow certain disease-causing bacteria to develop extreme drug resistance.
  4. rRNA modifications are an important source of ribosomal heterogeneity and contribute to translational control.

Our Solutions for Comprehensive rRNA Research

We provide a comprehensive battery of rRNA modification sequencing services to map diverse rRNA modifications including m7G, m3C, 2’-O-methylation, and ac4c.

m7G rRNA Sequencing m7G+m3C rRNA Sequencing 2'-O-Methylation rRNA Sequencing
Methylation of guanosine position 7 (m7G) is present at internal positions in rRNA that controls rRNA processing. CD Genomics utilizes m7G MeRIP-seq to map global m7G sites, and provides in-depth analyses of m7G RNA methylation. Both m7G and m3C are present in rRNA. CD Genomics provides m7G+m3C sequencing to locate global m7G and m3C sites in single-base resolution. Simultaneously, this method provides m7G and m3C patterns on mRNA, lncRNA, pri-miRNA and tRNA. 2'-O-methylation is a common nucleoside modification of rRNA. CD Genomics provides 2'-O-methylation sequencing (Nm-seq) for transcriptome-wide mapping of Nm with base precision.
ac4C rRNA Sequencing
ac4C is a conservative chemical modification present in 18S rRNA. CD Genomics provides Acetylated RNA immunoprecipitation (acRIP) sequencing to comprehensively analyze the distribution and changes of ac4C in the transcriptome.


  1. Sloan K E, Warda A S, Sharma S, et al. Tuning the ribosome: The influence of rRNA modification on eukaryotic ribosome biogenesis and function. RNA biology, 2017, 14(9): 1138-1152.
  2. Enroth C, Poulsen L D, Iversen S, et al. Detection of internal N7-methylguanosine (m7G) RNA modifications by mutational profiling sequencing[J]. Nucleic acids research, 2019, 47(20): e126-e126.
* For Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures.

Research Areas
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