Integrative tRNA Solutions

CD Genomics is dedicated to partnering with you to determine the optimal solution or technology for your tRNA research project. We offer sample-to-data service to completely profile tRNAs, accurately detect tRNA mutations/variants/isoforms and sensitively determine tRNA mutations. In coupled with professional data processing and bioinformatic analysis, our service will help researchers deepen the understanding of tRNA biology.

Overview of tRNAs

A transfer RNA (abbreviated tRNA) is a small RNA molecule, typically 76 to 90 nucleotides in length, that participates in protein synthesis as the physical link between the messenger RNA (mRNA) and the amino acid. tRNAs are a necessary component of translation that specify which sequence from the genetic code is in accord with which amino acid. Each tRNA molecule contains two vital areas: the anticodon corresponding to the trinucleotides of an mRNA codon and a region for attaching a specific amino acid. During translation, a tRNA molecule binds to its complementary sequence on the mRNA molecule, ensuring that the appropriate amino acid is incorporated into the protein. Some diseases show abnormal levels and distribution of tRNAs, like Huntington disease, HIV infection and mitochondrial encephalomyopathy. Additionally, tRNAs undergo a great deal of chemically diverse post-transcriptional modifications, which is essential for tRNA stability, folding and decoding. Mutations in many tRNA modification enzymes have been linked to human diseases. Therefore, accurately profiling tRNA and detecting tRNA mutations and modifications will help us better understand tRNA biology and its links to a wealth of human diseases. However, these aminoacylated termini and modifications hamper the adaptor ligation and reverse transcription during tRNA sequencing library preparation. Scientists at CD Genomics have developed optimal methodologies for tRNA-seq and tRNA modification analysis by mass spectrometry (MS), offering the most reliable tRNA repertoire and modification data for tRNA study.

Characteristics of tRNAs

  1. tRNAs are short (~ 76 to 90 nucleotides).
  2. tRNAs undergo a great deal of diverse chemical modifications.
  3. tRNAs are ubiquitous and serve as a fundamental component in translation.
  4. Alteration of tRNA repertoire influences cell fate and even promote tumorigenesis.
  5. Disrupted levels and distributions of tRNAs are linked to various human diseases.

Our Solutions for Comprehensive tRNA Research

We provide tRNA sequencing and tRNA modification analysis by MS for profiling tRNA and detecting tRNA mutations and modifications.

tRNA Sequencing tRNA Modification Analysis by MS
CD Genomics optimized small RNA sequencing integrated with modification removal for tRNA sequencing. Thorough tRNA annotation and bioinformatics analysis provide high quality data with publication quality graphics. Our sample-to-data service simultaneously analyzes 52 nucleoside modifications and characterizes global modification profile of tRNA to understand tRNA biogenesis, structure and functioning.


  1.  Torres A G, Reina O, Attolini C S O, et al. Differential expression of human tRNA genes drives the abundance of tRNA-derived fragments. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2019, 116(17): 8451-8456.
  2. Zheng G, Qin Y, Clark W C, et al. Efficient and quantitative high-throughput tRNA sequencing. Nature methods, 2015, 12(9): 835-837.
* For Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures.

Research Areas
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