tRF&tiRNA Sequencing

tRNA-derived small RNA fragments (tRFs) and tRNA halves (tiRNAs) are two classes of small non-coding RNAs derived from precursor tRNAs or mature tRNAs. They can act as microRNAs in RNA interference (RNAi) to regulate post-transcriptional expression. Our tRF&tiRNA-seq service provides a wealth of analyses for tRFs&tiRNAs studies, including tRFs and tiRNAs expression analysis and microRNA expression analysis.


tRFs and tiRNAs are generated through the precise biogenesis process of precursor tRNAs or mature tRNAs. They play important roles in the regulation of gene expression and cellular processes as small non-coding RNAs and are found to be associated with many human diseases and conditions. They serve as microRNAs in RNAi; regulate target mRNA stability; modulate apoptosis, and perform biological functions in response to diseases or conditions. The composition and abundance of tRFs and tiRNAs are strongly relying on the cell type and disease condition, making tRFs&tiRNAs attractive as potential biomarkers.

We provide one-stop tRF&tiRNA RNA sequencing service to identify tRF&tiRNA, profile tRF and tiRNA, predict their target genes, and provide insights into the study of biological functions and their underlying mechanisms. Based on the unique and comprehensive tiRNA and tRF database, we provide qualitative and quantitative analysis. We also provide microRNA expression profiles as well. tRF&tiRNA RNA sequencing is very helpful in discovering and detecting biomarkers and disease targets.


Comprehensive Expression AnalysisRigorous QC ProcessBioinformatics AnalysisOne-Stop Solution
Provide tRFs expression analysis, tiRNAs expression analysis and microRNA expression analysis.Optimized tRFs&tiRNAs sequencing method with a rigorous QC processOur integrated bioinformatics pipeline can be tailored to suit your project.Seamless integration with our broad range of tRNA technologies such as tRNA-seq

Project Workflow

Sample Preparation

1. Sample Preparation

Relieve thermodynamically stable structural constraint; ribosomal RNA depletion and fragmentation

Library Preparation

2. Library Preparation

Small RNA cDNA library preparation, and assessed and quantified by BioAnalyzer and RTQ-PCR.


3. Sequencing

Illumina HiSeq 2500

Data Analysis

4. Data Analysis

Accurate classification and annotation based on statistical significance and tRNA topology.

Bioinformatics Analysis Pipeline

Bioinformatics Analysis Pipeline

In-depth data analysis:

  • Profiling of tRFs, tiRNAs and microRNA
  • Detect novel and rare transcript variants
  • Target gene prediction and functional analysis of tRFs, tiRNAs and microRNA
  • Annotation of tRFs, tiRNAs and microRNA
  • Expression and differential expression profiling
  • Additional miRNA expression and differential analyses

Sample Requirements

RNA sample (concentration ≥ 200 ng/uL, quantity ≥ 2 ug, RNA is not significantly degraded)
1.8 ≤ OD260/280 ≤ 2.2, OD260/230 ≥ 1.5, RIN ≥ 7, 28S:18S≥1.5.

Sample storage: RNA can be dissolved in ethanol or RNA-free ultra-pure water and stored at -80°C. RNA should avoid repeated freezing and thawing.

Shipping Method: When shipping RNA samples, the RNA sample is stored in a 1.5 mL Eppendorf tube, sealed with sealing film. Shipments are generally recommended to contain 5-10 pounds of dry ice per 24 hours.

Deliverable: FastQ, BAM, coverage summary, QC report, custom bioinformatics analysis.


  1. Anderson, P. and Ivanov, P. tRNA fragments in human health and disease. FEBS letters, 2014, 588: 4297-4304.
  2. Zheng L L, Xu W L, Liu S, et al. tRF2Cancer: A web server to detect tRNA-derived small RNA fragments (tRFs) and their expression in multiple cancers. Nucleic acids research, 2016, 44(Web Server issue): W185–W193.
  3. Zhu L, Ge J, Li T, et al. tRNA-derived fragments and tRNA halves: The new players in cancers[J]. Cancer letters, 2019.
* For Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures.


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